Cancer treatments that are personalised to an individual’s tumour cells or body clock, a boost to the hunt for dark matter using new findings from Large Hadron Collider data, and long-distance communications enhanced by augmented reality are just some of the scientific breakthroughs expected by researchers this year.
Testing new medicines on miniature samples of human tissue, known as organ-on-a-chip or – in the case of multiple tissues – body-on-a-chip technology, promises to make medical research faster while reducing the use of lab animals.
We will see vaccines for malaria and HIV within the next one or two decades, predicts Dr Leonardo Santos Simão, the former health minister of Mozambique, who has been appointed High Representative South of the European & Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP), which aims to accelerate the development of new treatments, vaccines and diagnostic tools for diseases in sub-Saharan Africa.
Trillions of pieces of plastic, many of which will last for thousands of years, are floating in the oceans, potentially damaging human health, killing birds and fish, and even adding to global warming.
Carbon nanomaterials could carry out cancer diagnosis and therapy at the same time – and the results could be particularly effective for aggressive forms of cancer, say researchers who are developing so-called theranostic approaches.
Our ability to see a colour is limited by the words we have to describe it, and understanding more about colour categorisation could help improve how colour-blind children learn and develop, according to Anna Franklin, professor of visual perception and cognition at the University of Sussex in the UK, who is studying the relationship between language development and colour perception.
‘Lean’ farming could reduce waste.
Pre-eclampsia affects 800 000 women a year worldwide.
SESAME co-founder helped set up Middle East particle accelerator to build bridges in the region.